Article Links: Literatures, Science, Art & Architecture


-On Attitudes towards language in Ancient India. G. Cardona. Sino-Platonic Papers (1990), 19 pp. pdf 1.7Mb

  The main topics are the linguistic and cultural contrasts between Aryans and Non-Aryans, between Sanskrit and Prakrit speakers, between those that used correct and incorrect speech according to the brahmanic elite.

-Orality and textuality in the Indian Context. L. Rocher. Sino-Platonic Papers (1994), 28 pp. pdf 1.6Mb

  The extraordinary role of orality in Indian culture, that persists even today, is analyzed not only in relation to the Vedas but also in respect to belles lettres, prosody, grammar, Puranas and legal codes.

-Substrate Languages in Old Indo-Aryan (Rigvedic, Middle and Late Vedic). M. Witzel. EJVS 5.1 (1999), pp 1-67. pdf 0.6Mb. 

  The influx of Non Indo-European words (Dravidian, Munda, Tibeto-Burmese, etc) in archaic Sanskrit is discussed, particularly in the Rig Veda where 300-400 words are recognized to have been borrowed from other tongues.


a) General
El Mito Indio del Diluvio en su Relación con los Cuentos Clásicos y Próximo-orientales. P. Magnone. Transoxiana 6 (2003). pdf 0.2Mb 

  Myths about the Deluge are found in many cultures. In this essay the Near East versions are compared with those of India and of the Classical World. The differences are more obvious than the similarities, supporting the independence of the Indian myths.
-Myth As Literature In Ancient India: The Saga of Sukracarya. R.P. Goldman. Mahfil 7.3-4 (1971), pp 45-61. gif

  Annotated translation of a myth of the Matsya Purana preceded by a study of the role of myths in different literary contexts.
-A Jotting On The Mirror: Those Of Ladies. A. Wayman. Mahfil 7.3-4 (1971), pp 209-213. gif

  The role of mirrors in literature and art are examined, including their relations with love, magic, dreams and presages.
b) Vedic & Epic
Food and Immortality in the Veda: A Gastronomic Theology? C. Lopez. EJVS 3.3 (1997), pp 11-19. pdf 0.1Mb

  The obsession with food in the Vedas has, often, a meaning beyond the material, expressing metaphysical concepts such as immortality and the vision of heaven.
-Notes On Rasa In Vedic And Buddhist Texts. A. Fiske. Mahfil 7.3-4 (1971), pp. 215-218. gif

  The multiple meanings of the Sanskrit word
rasa in the Rig Veda and in the Upanishads contrasted with its meaning in Buddhist texts such as the Buddhacarita and the Lotus Sutra.
-Vedic And Epic Translations. L. Nathan. Mahfil 7.3-4 (1971), pp. 29-44. gif

  A multidisciplinary project headed by a poet ignorant of Sanskrit whose collaborators bring him a prose version and the context. Here, it is applied to a few Vedic hymns and to a passage of the
Ramayana. The result is, at least, interesting and thought-provoking.
-Trijata's Dream. R. Padgett. Mahfil 7.3-4 (1971), pp. 63-65. gif

  A poetic and colloquial translation of a brief episode from book V (
Sundarakanda) of Ramayana, in which the rakshasa Trijata (favorable to Sita) speaks about a dream foretelling the defeat of Ravana.

c) Classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit Rhetoric And Poetic. V. Niwas Misra. Mahfil 7.3-4 (1971), pp. 1-18. gif

  In order to better understand the various theories formulated in India about the nature and esthetics of poetry, it is necessary to define more precisely a number of words of complex meaning current in literature and art.
-Obscenity In Sanskrit Literature. J. Masson-Moussaieff. Mahfil 7.3-4 (1971), pp 197-207. gif

  The erotic subject is common in Sanskrit literature, and the boundary between erotic and pornographic unclear. The many opinions of ancient literary critics, often contradictory, are quoted in this respect.
-Pour décrire un commentaire traditionnel sur une œuvre littéraire sanskrite. F. Grimal. BEFEO 87 (2000), pp 765-785. pdf/gif 

  In ancient India many commentaries of literary and philosophical works were available. To understand better the methods and goals of the first class, a commentary of the drama “Malati and Madhava” of Bhavabhuti, written by Harihara, is analyzed, and four long excerpts of it translated.
-Referencias a la mujer en el Manava Dharma Shastra. L. Pilello. Transoxiana 9 (2004). HTML

  The Manava-dharma-sastra or "Laws of Manu" is one of the most famous normative texts of social conduct in India. The author gathers the references to the rights and obligations of women scattered in the work, in order to give an idea about the status of women according to the brahman’s point of view.

  An experiment in the translation of Sanskrit poetry applied to parts of the canto VIII of  Kumara-sambhava ("The Birth of  Kumara"), one of two great narrative poems of Kalidasa, presented here in two versions: the first one is extremely literal  to the point of preserving the compound Sanskrit words, and for that quite unreadable; the second is more an explanation than a real translation.

-Malavika and Agnimitra: A New Translation of Kalidasa's Play. E. Gerow. Mahfil 7.3-4 (1971), pp 67-128. gif

  A very good translation, complete, recent and annotated, of Kalidasa’s comedy.

-The Hermit And The Harlot. J.A.B. van Buitenen. Mahfil 7.3-4 (1971), pp 149-166. gif

  Brief farce woven around the interchange of bodies between a brahman and a prostitute.

-The Fifty Stanzas Of A Thief. R. Gombrich. Mahfil 7.3-4 (1971), pp 175-186. gif

  A modern translation of the Caura-pancasika ("The 50 Stanzas of a Thief ") of Bilhana, a well-known love poem, composed in the 11th century, where each stanza is virtually autonomous.

-Songs From Jayadeva's Gitagovinda. B. Stoler-Miller. Mahfil 7.3-4 (1971), pp 187-195. gif

  A rather large sample of the Gita-govinda, the popular lyric poem of the Bengali Jayadeva composed of 24 songs, in a modern version.

-Sanskrit Compositions In Carnatic Music. C.V. Narasimhan. Mahfil 7.3-4 (1971), pp 251-254. gif

  The three greatest composers of carnatic music (that of southern India) lived in the second half of the 18th century and at the beginning of the 19th. Of them, only Diksitar composed his songs regularly in Sanskrit while Tyagaraja used it occasionally preferring Telugu, and Sastri didn’t use it at all writing exclusively in Telugu. In this article four songs are commented upon (two of Diksitar and  two of Tyagaraja) including, as well, their original Sanskrit text without English translations.


d) Middle Indo-Aryan: Pali & Prakrits

-Some Sanskrit Poetic Motifs In The Prakrit "Sattasai". J.T. Roberts. Mahfil 7.3-4 (1971), pp 219-221. gif.

  The Sattasai ("Seven Hundred Stanzas") is one of the few surviving literary works in Prakrit. Composed in Maharashtri, the most literary of the Prakrits, these brief poems don’t escape the influence of Sanskrit literature, but they have a more rustic flavor and a penchant for the popular.

e) Modern Indo-Aryan (and Iranian):

-Kabir. D. Canales. Mahfil 6.2-3 (1970), pp 63-70. gif

  A brief selection of Kabir’s poems (1440-1518), translated from the Hindi, in which he expressed his belief in a god common to Hindus and Muslims, and his expectations of a more egalitarian society.

-Surdas: Twelve Poems. K. McMecchan. Mahfil 5.1-2 (1969), pp 55-58. gif

  The blind poet Surdas (died in 1563), one of the most celebrated in the Hindi language, was a disciple of the philosopher Vallabha, composing his devotional songs in honor of Krishna. Here, are translated twelve of his poems from Sursagar, his most important collection.

-Urdu Literature and Mughal Decline. F. Lebmann. Mahfil 6.2-3 (1970), pp 125-132. gif

  The flowering of Urdu poetry coincides with the collapse of the Mughal empire, being favored by the consequent lost of status of Persian as a cultivated language, and the emergence of the new genre of political narrative poetry.

-Tukaram: Twenty-five Poems. P. Machae. Mahfil 5.1-2 (1969), pp 61-64. gif

  Selection of 25 poems of Tukaram, saint-poet of the 17th century who wrote in Marathi in honor of Vishnu.

  Narasimha Maheta was a devotional poet who lived in Gujarat in the 15th century, but this article is not about his poems; instead it is interested in his "biographies", mostly legends, which belong to the hagiographic literature in Gujarati. Composed in verse, in the course of four centuries, a selection of them is offered here as an illustrative sample of the genre.

-Sanskrit Literary Forms And Oriya Literature. D.P. Pattayanak. Mahfil 7.3-4 (1971), pp 229-233. gif

  The first documents in Oriya, the language of the Orissa region of eastern India, are from the 12th century, but the first literary works date to the 14th. The author underscores the profound influence of Sanskrit in the Oriya literature, in style as well as in content, giving an overview of it from its origins to the present day.

-Sindhi Literature. A. Schimmel. Mahfil 7.1-2 (1971), pp 71-80. gif.

  Sindhi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Sindh (Pakistan), and in the neighboring regions of Gujarat in India. This essay gives an overview of its rich literature, neglected by Western scholars.

-Baluchi Language and Literature. A. Bausani. Mahfil 7.1-2 (1971), pp 43-53. gif

  Baluchi is an Iranian language spoken today in eastern Iran and in the province of Baluchistan in Pakistan. Its literature is mostly oral consisting in song-poems and prose narratives. The most salient features of these literature are highlighted, and prose and sample verses translated. 

-Pashto Language and Literature. A. Bausani. Mahfil 7.1-2 (1971), pp 55-69. gif

  Pashto is, as Baluchi, an Iranian language of the Indo-European family. It is spoken in Afghanistan and parts of Pakistan. The author outlines the history of Pashto literature from its controversial origins to the present, offering a selection of representative texts.

f) Dravidian Languages

-Five Vacanas. A.K. Ramanujan. Mahfil 6.2-3 (1970), pp 91-93. gif

  Vacanas or “Sayings” are brief poems in free verse composed in Kannada, the language of Karnataka (southwest India). Their intense devotion to Siva prescinds of ritual and caste. This brief anthology was made by a well-known scholar and poet.

-Kshetrayya. Twenty-Eight Poems and an Introduction. B. Narayana Rao. Mahfil 8.2-3 (1972), pp 107-137. gif 

  A sample of the poems of Kshettrayya, an itinerant poet-saint of the 18th century, author of praised devotional songs, erotic in tone, composed in Telugu, the language of Andhra Pradesh.

A Note on the Five-Year Yuga of the Vedanga Jyotisa. B.N. Achar. EJVS 3.4 (1997), pp 21-28. pdf 0.1Mb.

  One of the six auxiliary disciplines of the Vedas, known collectively as Vedanga, was astronomy-astrology (
jyotisha) whose main goal was to establish the propitious time for rituals. Only three short texts are extant from this branch of the Vedanga, two of them very similar. The most ancient and important, annexed to the Rig Veda, describes in its mere 36 stanzas, a calendar based in a five-year time cycle called yuga.
-Indian Medicine in Sri Lanka. J. Liyanaratne. BEFEO 76 (1987), pp 201-216. pdf/gif

 The subject of this article is the origin and nature of traditional medicine in Sri Lanka. The analysis of two medical treatises written in this country, plus of other data, confirm that, in great measure, it was heavily indebted to the Indian Ayurveda.

-Sinhalese Medical Manuscripts in Paris. J. Liyanaratne. BEFEO 76 (1987), pp 185-199. pdf/gif

  A search conducted in the National Library, and other institutions in Paris, identified several Sinhalese medical manuscripts. Among them, a translation of the Besajjamañjusa, the only medical treatise written originally in Pali. Another manuscript contained the Yoga-ratnakaraya inspired by the Indian Ayurveda.


a) General

-City, House and Grave: Symbolism in Central and South Asian Architecture. B. Brentjes. Environmental Design 2 (1986), pp 38-41. pdf 0.3Mb

  The symbolic use of the square and circle in Asian architecture starting with Bronze Age tombs, continuing with its diffusion in Central Asia, China and India to culminate with the buildings of the Mughal dynasty.

b) Hindu 

-Étude sur les fortifications de l'Inde. I. Les fortifications de l'Inde ancienne. J. Deloche. BEFEO 79 (1992), pp 89-131. pdf/gif 

  In this first article of a series about the fortifications of India, 8 sites of the Indus Valley civilization and 22 from the early historic period are reviewed, taking into account archeological, literary and iconographic sources.

  Only from the 6th century onwards substantial remains of fortifications are found in southern India, starting with three sites of the Calukya dynasty: Aihole, Badami and Alampur. Between the 11th-14th centuries there is an evolution with the appearance of concentric walls (Hangal, Warangal) or by the employment of more solid materials (Halebid, Malkhed, Raichur, the third wall of Warangal). Between the 15th-18th centuries Hindu fortifications must adapt to the arrival of the Muslims and to the proliferation of firearms, as stand witness the magnificent remains of the Vijayanagara empire (Vijayanagara city, Candragiri, Penukonda, Mudgal, Vellore). Lastly, the features of 4 fortified cities (Tiruchi, Tanjavur, Madurai, Palaiyamkottai) are examined with the aid of ancient plans and ruins in situ.

  The mountain forts of the plateau of Mysore (Maisur in French), in southeastern Karnataka and neighboring areas of Tamilnadu, were made famous by the four Mysore wars between the English and the native rulers Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan. However, most of them seem to have been the creations of the Vijayanagara kings from an earlier period. The author surveys the architectural remains of a great number of these forts providing nearly one hundred pictures of them.

  This is the catalogue of the fortified sites studied in the previous article (10 in Tamilnadu, 9 in Karnataka) with the bibliography of each one.

-Style and Idiom in the Art of Uparamala. M.W. Meister. Muqarnas 10 (1993), pp 344-354. pdf 2.8Mb

  Uparamala, also known as northern Malava, is a frontier region of east Rajasthan not only geographically, but also politically and artistically. It can, then, serve as a model to try to elucidate the essence of architectural and sculptural styles in Hindu temples. With that purpose, Meister compares various temples that have significative stylistic differences in spite of being contemporary and/or adjacents.

-The Meeting of Kings and Gods: The Royal Centre at Vijayanagara. J. Fritz & G. Michell. Environmental Design (1984), pp 39-45. pdf 0.6Mb

  The ruins of Vijayanagara in Karnataka, capital of the homonymous kingdom that encompassed most of southern India in the 14th-16th centuries, are the only substantial remains of a Non-Islamic city of ancient India. Divided in three areas: residential, sacred and royal, the authors of this article focused on the last because it presents the major morphological and functional variety of buildings.

-Les inscriptions du temple de Vithala à Hampi. P-S. Filliozat & V. Filliozat. BEFEO 74 (1985), pp 183-264. pdf/gif 

  Hampi is the modern name of Vijayanagara, one of the major and most fascinating archeological sites of the subcontinent (see previous entry), and the Vithala one of its most remarkable temples. Each and everyone of the temple’s inscriptions (24 in total) are recorded and translated. Previously, the structure, function, and characteristics of the surrounding area are described.

-An Indian Portfolio: Jaisalmer. R. Rewal & others. MIMAR 20 (1986), pp 69-78. pdf 1.8Mb

  Excellent plans and drawings of the center of Jaisalmer, in west Rajasthan, including those of some havelis, the great mansions built by rich merchants in the 18th century.

-An Indian Portfolio: Padmanabhapuram Palace. R. Rewal & K.T. Ravindran. MIMAR 21 (1986), pp 61-68. pdf 1Mb

  Another great portfolio of drawings by the same team of the previous. This one is about the wooden palace of Padma-nabha-puram built in Kerala in the 15th century.

-Wooden Construction in Ancient Gujarat. V.S. Pramar. Environmental Design 1-2 (1988), pp 24-31. pdf 6Mb

  Wood has been for a very long time the material of choice for house construction in Gujarat, in combination with brick and stone. Also, and no less important, for eaves, balconies, doors, windows and floors. In order to unravel the ancient techniques of wooden construction, this article resorts to recent buildings in traditional style that keep using the old methods.

-Musical Instruments in Hoysala Sculpture (Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries). J. Deloche. BEFEO 77 (1988), pp 57-68. pdf/gif 

  Inventory and classification of musical instruments depicted in the Hoysala sculpture of Karnataka, between 12th-13th centuries.

-Boats and Ships in Bengal Terracotta Arts. J. Deloche. BEFEO 78 (1991), pp 1-49. pdf/gif 

  Terra cotta plaques were the material of choice for sculptural reliefs in the temples of Bengala. They are one of the main sources of information about ancient ships. Specially, the local ones are depicted with fidelity and precision, but the foreign vessels, with which the artists were not familiar, are not. Numerous photos and drawings illustrate this survey of the subject.

-La girafe dans la faune de l'art indien. A. Rosu. BEFEO 71 (1982), pp 47-62. pdf/gif 

  Iconographic survey of the giraffe in sculpture, rock paintings, and miniature paintings. These exotic animals were introduced in India by the Arabs from eastern Africa through the trade networks of the Indian Ocean.

c) Delhi Sultanate

-The Architecture of Baha al-Din Tughrul in the Region of Bayana, Rajastan. M. & N. Shokoohy. Muqarnas 4 (1987), pp 114-132. pdf 4.8 Mb

  Baha al-Din Tughrul was a rival of the founder of the Delhi Sultanate, Qutb-ud-din Aybak. Governor of the ancient province of Bayana, in the east of Rajasthan, he sponsored there several religious buildings, three of which are still extant: two mosques, and a prayer wall on open ground (idgah), which in spite of being among the first Islamic monuments of India had received little notice until now.

-The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate. A. Welch & H. Crane. Muqarnas 1 (1983), pp 123-166. pdf 27.3Mb

  The Tughluq was, among the five dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate, the one that left the most extensive and important architectural legacy. After considerations of chronology and patronage, a detailed typological survey is carried out, including citadels, mosques, madrasas, tombs and palaces. The two final sections deal with the architects and religious epigraphy.

-Architectural Patronage and the Past: The Tughluq Sultans of India. A. Welch. Muqarnas 10 (1993), pp 311-322. pdf 3.1Mb

  Similar to the preceding article, but shorter.

-The Shrine of the Holy Footprint in Delhi. A. Welch. Muqarnas 14 (1997), pp 166-178. pdf 2Mb

  Qadam Sharif was a religious complex founded by Firuz Shah, one of the most prolific builders of the Delhi Sultanate. Located in the north of Delhi, distant three kilometers from Firuzabad (the citadel-capital created by the same Firuz), its focal point was a shrine in honor of a footprint of the Prophet. The author tries to rescue for the  benefit of the reader this Islamic monument neglected and forgotten.

-The City of Turquoise: A Preliminary Report on the Town of Hisar-i Firuza. A. Welch. Environmental Design 2 (1985), pp 82-89. pdf 6.5Mb

  Hisar-i-Firuza was an ambitious urban project of Firuz Shah Tughluq. Now called Hisar, the city is situated in the state of Haryana, 140 km northwest of Delhi, keeping part of the ancient fortifications, the main mosque, the palace, and other buildings. Each one is described here after a review of the architectural achievements of Firuz in Delhi.

-Hydraulic Architecture in Medieval India: the Tughluqs. A. Welch. Environmental Design 2 (1985), pp 74-81. pdf 6.2Mb

  Welch, a specialist in Tughluq architecture, reviews the principal works of hydraulic engineering of this dynasty in Delhi. Among them: the system of dams of Ghiyas-ud-din in Tughluqabad, the Satpula of Muhammad, the Hauz Khas, and the bridge of Wazirabad.

d) Regional Sultanates

  Here are the results of two missions sent to the southern Deccan to study Muslim fortifications. Those are found in Gulbarga, Bijapur, Bidar, Basava Kalyana, Golconda, Naldurga, Parenda and Sholapur (in  Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and southern Maharashtra), sites that prospered under the Bahmanis and subsequent sultanates.

-City of the Sultan. C. Stone. Aramco World Magazine (July-August 1997), pp 14-23. pdf 4.4Mb

  A light introduction, but with superb photos, to the rich architecture of Ahmadabad developed during the exceedingly prosperous Sultanate of Gujarat (1407-1583)

-Ahmedabad: Garden City of the Sultanate and Mughal Period. S. Brahmbhatt. Environmental Design (1984), pp 3-6. pdf 2.7Mb

  Of the gardens of Ahmadabad little or nothing remains, thus in order to evoke them it is necessary to resort to contemporary accounts and descriptions of travelers.

-A Study of some Indo-Muslim Towns in Gujarat. V.S. Pramar. Environmental Design (1984), pp 28-31.  pdf 0.3Mb.

  Six cities in Gujarat, established by Muslims or under strong Muslim influence (Ahmadabad, Baroda, Palanpur, Radhanpur, Surat and Cambay) are compared in order to reach conclusions about the Islamic urbanism in the area.

-Khanaquah of Shah Hamadan. P. Patrose & R. Sampat. MIMAR 16 (1985), pp 65-73. pdf 3.1Mb

  The khanaquahs, initially places of  residence for Sufi saints, became later places of prayer. That of Shah Hamadan is made of wood and can be found in Srinagar, the capital of Kashmir. Built in the 14th century, it has been damaged and remodeled several times, but still remains one of the most remarkable specimens of Islamic regional architecture in India.

-Sultanate Mosques and Continuity in Bengal Architecture. P. Hasan. Muqarnas 6 (1989), pp 58-74. pdf 3.6Mb

  The conversion to Islam in Bengal was massive, promoting the proliferation of a great number of mosques during the Bengal Sultanate (1338-1538). Except for the enormous Adina, based on orthodox models, all had to adapt their architecture to the peculiar cultural and geographic constraints of the region: rapid Islamization, absence of a monumental tradition, a large rural population, rainy weather, scarcity of stone, etc.

-An Epigraphical Journey to an Eastern Islamic Land. M.S. Siddiqi. Muqarnas 7 (1990), pp 83-108. pdf 4.2Mb

  The calligraphic art of the inscriptions of Bengal, including those from Western Bengal (India) as well as those from Eastern Bengal (Bangladesh), in the entire Islamic period (Sultanate of Bengal, Mughals).

-Hyderabad: A Qur'anic Paradise in Architectural Metaphors. J. Pieper. Environmental Design (1984), pp 46-51. pdf 0.6Mb 

  The city of Hyderabad, in Andhra Pradesh, was founded in 1591 by Quli Qubt Shah as the capital of his Sultanate, one of various coexisting in the Deccan at the time. The author analyzes the urban plan, raising the hypothesis that Hyderabad was designed as a replica of the Paradise depicted in the Koran.

  A panorama of the history of Bijapur (situated in Karnataka), capital of one of the most powerful of the Deccan sultanates, is followed by a description of the city in order to address the central theme of this long study: its works of hydraulic engineering, which include wells and bavlis, dams, aqueducts and qanats, built or upgraded by Muslims with the help of Persian engineers.


e) Mughal

-Sub-Imperial Palaces: Power and Authority in Mughal India. C.B. Asher. Ars Orientalis 23 (1993), pp 281-302. pdf 12Mb

  The sub-imperial palaces of the Mughal period (those in the hands of governors, landlords and local leaders) are studied here more from a sociopolitical viewpoint than from a strictly architectural one, considering their location, fortifications and materials.

  The tombs of the six first Mughal emperors, from Babur to Aurangzeb, are interpreted with the aid of Timurid architecture. The idea of a simple evolution is discarded and a cyclic model is proposed, instead.

-Humayun's Tomb: Form, Function, and Meaning in Early Mughal Architecture. G.D. Lowry. Muqarnas 4 (1987), pp 133-148. pdf 3.8Mb

  Study in depth, from multiple perspectives, of one of the most remarkable Islamic monuments of India.

-Delhi in the 16th century. G. Lowry. Environmental Design (1984), pp 7-17. pdf 3.7Mb

  The influence of Humayun’s tomb in the urban landscape of 16th century Delhi is discussed, particularly in relation to the citadel of Dinpanah, and to the religious complex of the Sufi saint Nizam-ud-din Aulya.

-New Light on the History of Two Early Mughal Monuments of Bayana. A.I. Khan. Muqarnas 6 (1989), pp 75-82. pdf 2Mb 

  Two little-known buildings of the early Mughal period are described here, both enclosed in the fort of  Vijayamandirgarh, in the Bayana region of southeastern Rajasthan. One of them is a two-story pavilion (manzil) built by a nobleman in Humayun’s reign. The other is the tomb of Shaikh Buhlul dating, probably, from the beginning of Akbar’s reign. The first one is specially interesting, as a precursor of the renowned Panch Mahal in Fathepur Sikri.

  Fatehpur Sikri, the ephemeral capital of Akbar, abandoned a few years after its foundation, remains frozen in time providing a unique opportunity to discover the intentions and aspirations of the Mughals in the design of their cities.

-The Jahangiri Mahal of the Agra Fort: Expression and Experience in Early Mughal Architecture. W.G. Klingelhofer. Muqarnas 5 (1988), pp 153-169. pdf 4.1Mb

  An intensive an extensive study of the Jahangiri Mahal, which in spite of his name belonged to Akbar, the first Mughal palace that has been preserved.

-The Generous Heart or the Mass of Clouds: The Court Tents of Shah Jahan. P.A. Andrews. Muqarnas 4 (1987), pp 149-165. pdf 3.1Mb

  The employment of highly sophisticated tents was characteristic of Mughal courts, reaching its climax during Shah Jahan’s reign. They were used to shelter the nobles in audiences, feasts and ceremonies, and as a display of the magnificence of the sovereign.

-Diwan-i 'Amm and Chihil Sutun: The Audience Halls of Shah Jahan. E. Koch. Muqarnas 11 (1994), pp 143-165. pdf 13.1Mb

  The Hall of Public Audiences, the Diwan i Amm, was a new type of building created by Shah Jahan to shelter the nobles from the sun and rain, preserving the etiquette while they awaited for an audience. Those in Lahore, Agra and Delhi are analyzed and compared with the aid of many plans and photographs. 

-Mughal Palace Gardens from Babur to Shah Jahan (1526-1648). E. Koch. Muqarnas 14 (1997), pp 143-165. pdf 5Mb

  Study about the early Mughal gardens, particularly those situated inside palaces. It is complemented by the next article, of the same author, dedicated to gardens located in the vicinity of rivers and lakes.

-The Mughal Waterfront Garden. E. Koch. Gardens in the Time of the Great Muslim Empires (1997), pp 140-160. pdf 4.3Mb

  The exquisite riparian gardens of the Mughals: those of Agra’s fort, those of Taj Mahal, those of the Red Fort of Delhi, those of Shalimar in Lahore...

-Babur and the Timurid Char Bagh: Use and Meaning. C.B. Asher. Environmental Design, 1-2 (1991), pp 46-55. pdf 10.1Mb

  Babur, the founder of the Mughal dynasty, was a descendent of Timur and had close connexions with Samarkand, the former capital of the Timurid empire, which had a magnificent architecture and many quadripartite gardens or char baghs. The Timurid heritage influenced the purpose and design of the gardens he commissioned in India, which were used as camping grounds, to celebrate religious ceremonies, audiences, and wine parties.

-The Lotus Garden Palace of Zahir al-Din Muhammad Babur. E. Moynihan. Muqarnas 5 (1988), pp 135-152. pdf 4Mb

  It was believed that there were no significant remains of Babur’s gardens. The rediscovery of the Lotus Garden, in between Gwalior and Agra, whose name alludes to three fountains illustrating successive stages in the flowering of the lotus, help us to understand the origin and evolution of Mughal gardens.

-Gardens and Religious Topography in Kashmir. A. Petruccioli. Environmental Design 1-2 (1991), pp 64-73. pdf 9.1Mb

  A detailed study of the religious topography of the valley of Kashmir, makes clear the permanence of Hindu and Muslim sacred spots. This same topography determined, as well, the location of many Mughal gardens in the area, whose more assiduous patron was the emperor Jahangir.

-The Zahara Bagh (Bagh-i-Jahanara) at Agra. E. Koch. Environmental Design 2 (1986), pp 30-37. pdf 7Mb

  The Zahara Bagh garden, located in the east bank of the Yamuna river in Agra, attributed without much ground to Babur, is actually much later. It belonged, apparently, to a daughter of Shahjahan as revealed by an ancient map of Agra, and by the analysis of literary sources and in situ remains.

-Four Mughal Caravanserais Built during the Reigns of Jahangir and Shah Jahan. W.E. Begley. Muqarnas 1 (1983) pp 167-180. pdf 10.1Mb

  The caravanserais, the large roadside walled hostels for the repose of travelers, had been quite ignored by the architectural historians, and many of them had been victims of population expansion and neglect. However, a good number of them perdure along the ancient Mughal route between Agra and Lahore. Four of those caravanserais, close in space and time, are studied here.

-Persian Artists in Mughal India: Influences and Transformations. P.P. Soucek. Muqarnas 4 (1987), pp 166-181. pdf 4.1Mb

  The careers of three painters and calligraphers trained in Iran, who illustrated books in the Mughal court, are followed and the artistic connections between Iran and India studied.

© 2009 Alejandro Gutman



      my e-mail:

Dictionaries & History

Religion & Philosophy

Literature, Science & Art